The 16th century in Central Finland spelled established administration, settlements and the cultivation of forest areas cleared through burning. There were approximately 2000 inhabitants at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries, with settlers from Savo arriving and seizing hunting grounds from the people of Häme. Savo-born people would settle in the northern and central parts of Cental Finland, where old fishing and hunting habits remained as subsidiary occupations even for centuries. It was only in the middle of the century that fixed settlements were established in the northern parts of Central Finland. According to population research there were about 4000 inhabitants in Central Finland in the 1580s, which is just over 1 % of the population of the entire country.

At the beginning of the 16th century the administrative and church parishes of Central Finland were part of the fief dominated by the castle of Häme, the western parts belonging to the Turku fief. New parishes were founded in Central Finland. The most important route was the "old Laukaa road" via the western side of Lake Päijänne to Kangasala and Hämeenlinna. The province's 500 house centres of population consisting of Häme and Savo-born people were situated in the Greater Jämsä area and in Kuhmoinen.